Breeding - Whelping or Birth (2023)

From the time of mating, many females will show changes in behavior, often becoming more affectionate. However, some pets will become uncharacteristically irritable and may even act aggressively during pregnancy. Be sensitive to your pet's behavioral changes and be sure to alert your veterinarian if you observe any abnormalities that you are uncomfortable with.

Does "morning sickness" occur in pregnant dogs?

Breeding - Whelping or Birth (1)

Some dogs do experience a few days of vomiting ("morning sickness") usually followed by the development of a ravenous appetite that persists throughout pregnancy. "Morning sickness" does not occur in all dogs. There is also a normal decrease in the desire for exercise and physical activity during the first and last two weeks of pregnancy.

hiding in strange places. Is this normal?

During the last week of pregnancy the female often starts to look for a safe place for whelping. Some pets appear to become confused, wanting to be with their owners and at the same time wanting to prepare their nest. It is a good idea to get your pet used to the place where you want her to have her puppies well in advance of whelping. Even so, there are a number of dogs that insist on having their puppies near the owner. This may be on your bed in the middle of the night. Be warned!

She has decided to whelp in the bedroom, what should you do?

It will be far less stressful for everyone to allow her to continue in her chosen place. Make sure you spread lots of old newspaper and, if possible, cover the carpet with a plastic sheet covered by sheets or newspaper. It is normal for foetal fluids to be colored green. These stains can be difficult to remove.

Once your pet has finished whelping, try gently moving her and her new family to your chosen place. She should be well acquainted with this area prior to whelping.

If your pet insists on being near you with her puppies, allow her. A whelping box in a quiet corner of the living room that has been protected with newspapers and sheets is preferable to an anxious mother constantly leaving her puppies.

(Video) Pomeranian Birth 5 Puppies Dog Breeding 101

Should you be present during the whelping?

Some dogs like the owner to be with them the whole time they are in labour. Others prefer to have their puppies in seclusion. Respect your pet's wishes and avoid intruding any more than necessary.

preparing in advance

Make sure you have plenty of clean newspaper and sheets or towels.

Select the place where you would like her to have her puppies. Make sure that a suitable whelping box has been placed there. The whelping box should be large enough for her to move around freely, with low sides so that she can see and easily move in and out. A large cardboard packing case with an open top and a piece cut out at the side is ideal for many dogs. Be sure to ask your veterinary healthcare team for more advice on making a whelping box for your pet.

Line the bottom of the whelping box with plenty of paper. There will be a large amount of fluid at the time of whelping. If sufficient layers of newspaper and cloth are laid before whelping, you can remove soiled layers with minimum interruption to the mother and her newborn puppies immediately after the whelping.

Acrylic bedding, which is easily washed, can be used to cover the newspaper, although, during the whelping, plain newspaper is probably less hazardous and the puppies are less likely to get hidden beneath it.

How will you know when your dog is going to start having puppies?

Some females stop eating during the last twenty-four hours before labor, although this is certainly not universal. The rectal temperature will drop below 100oF (37.8oC), usually an hour or two before whelping.

These signs may last for up to twenty-four hours and are part of first stage labor.

(Video) Boxer Breeding and Whelping - Part 6 - Shugga's 1st Litter - Time for Whelping

Second stage labor is the stage of delivery. Your dog will start to strain. If straining continues for two hours without any signs of a watery discharge ("water breaking") or puppies, you should contact your veterinarian. Most dogs experience no complications with delivery. First time mothers should be attended by their owners until at least one or two puppies have been born.

If there are no problems, further attendance will depend upon the desire of your pet and the situation. As mentioned previously, some dogs prefer you to be present while others prefer to be alone.

your dog has not had puppies before. Do you think she will be all right left alone during whelping?

Primagravidas, or females having puppies for the first time, should be kept under surveillance until you think they have finished, just in case they get into trouble. Make sure the newborn puppies are being properly cared for by your dog, particularly if she is still in labour. Some females are more concerned with straining to produce the next puppy than caring for the puppies already delivered. If that is the case, a small cardboard box with a towel-wrapped bottle filled with warm (not hot) water should be placed with the puppies to ensure they remain warm while the mother finishes delivery.

How long will whelping take?

Delivery times vary. Dogs with fairly slim heads such as Shelties, Collies and Dobermans may complete delivery of all the puppies within two to three hours. Brachycephalic breeds, or breeds with large, round heads such as Bulldogs, Boston Terriers, and Pekingese tend to have more difficult deliveries and sometimes will produce one or two puppies relatively quickly and then rest for a while before labour starts again.

If your dog has produced at least one puppy and does not strain again within two hours, your veterinarian should be contacted. If the pregnant female has been straining continuously for a couple of hours and has not had a puppy, it is also important that she receives immediate veterinary attention.

How are puppies normally born? Do they usually come out backwards?

Puppies are usually born headfirst with the forelegs extended. This is called anterior presentation. Posterior presentation is also normal for dogs. In this case the puppy is born with tail and hindlegs emerging first. This is not a breech presentation. A breech presentation is one in which the hindlegs are extended forward and the tail and bottom are presented first. This is abnormal and may require a c-section or veterinary assistance to deliver the puppy. Some breech presentations can result in a normal delivery. If a puppy's tail is seen hanging from the vulva or there is a lump just behind the vulval lips and your pet is straining, contact your veterinarian immediately.

Should your dog pass afterbirth after each puppy?

Each puppy is enclosed in a sac that is part of the placenta or afterbirth. This sac is usually broken during the birthing process and passed through the vulva after each puppy is born. You may not notice any afterbirths, since it is normal for the female to eat them. The hormones in the afterbirth help with milk production. Sometimes a mother will have two or three puppies and then pass several of the afterbirths together.

(Video) 15 Things You Need Ready Before Whelping

Is it important that you count the afterbirths?

It may be difficult to obtain an accurate count of the number of afterbirths since most dogs will eat them quickly. If the afterbirth is not passed, it usually disintegrates and passes within twenty-four to forty-eight hours after delivery. This usually happens when the dog defaecates.

If the mother has a bloody or smelly vaginal discharge twenty-four to forty-eight hours after delivery, veterinary help should be sought.

Breeding - Whelping or Birth (2)

How soon should a puppy be born after it starts emerging from the birth canal?

In a normal delivery a few contractions will produce the puppy. Ten minutes is reasonable. Following delivery the mother will lick and chew at the puppy and often appears to be treating it quite roughly. In most cases this is normal behavior and stimulates the puppy to start breathing. During the chewing and licking she tears the birth sac and exposes the mouth and nose so that the puppy can breathe. You will realize all is well if the puppy starts to whimper or cry within a minute or so after birth.

Sometimes the placenta is delivered immediately after the puppy and is attached by the umbilical cord. The mother normally chews the umbilical cord and breaks it about an inch from the puppy, consuming the placenta at the same time. In some dogs, the mother seems to become over enthusiastic and may lick and chew at the puppy until she injures it. Therefore, it is advisable to observe the dog as she cares for her newborn puppies, particularly if it is her first litter.

What to do if your dog has a puppy still attached to the afterbirth and walks away from it.

This can occasionally happen in first-time mothers. If this happens, it is important that you ensure the puppy's mouth and nostrils are clear of any afterbirth or membranes. Remember the puppy is born in a fluid filled sac that usually breaks during birth. If the puppy is delivered still in the sac, break it as quickly as possible. Clean the puppy's face and nostrils and then gently blow on its face to try and stimulate breathing. If the afterbirth is still intact, hold the umbilical cord between your finger and thumb with the puppy resting in the palm of your hand and cut the cord with a pair of scissors approximately an inch from the puppy. Holding it for a few seconds will usually stop any bleeding. Otherwise tie it with clean thread.

Next, hold the puppy in a towel and gently rub it until the hair starts to dry. The puppy should then start to whimper and breathe normally. The tongue should be pink. Once it is breathing normally, you can offer it to the mother. If she is more interested in delivering further puppies, place the puppy in a box with a warm water bottle covered by a towel. Be sure to cover the puppy with a warm towel to keep it warm.

(Video) Whelping two week English bulldogs puppies

What happens if the puppy is visible but your dog can't deliver it?

Speed is of the essence in such situations, especially if it is a posterior or breech presentation. If the puppy is coming headfirst make sure that the membranes are removed from the visible part of the mouth and face. If the puppy is coming backwards, speed is important otherwise the puppy will suffocate. This is considered a medical emergency.

What should you do?

Regardless of whether the puppy is coming head first or hind first, take a piece of clean tissue or clean cloth and gently grab the puppy and apply traction at approximately forty-five degrees to the angle between the spine and the hind legs. Do not pull only when the mother strains. Constant, gentle traction on the puppy will stimulate additional contractions. Once the puppy has been born, clear the membranes and then cut the umbilical cord. If the afterbirth is still inside the mother, do not worry. It is important to stimulate the puppy by blowing gently down the nostrils and mouth and clearing any discharges, membranes, debris and also stimulating it by gently rubbing it with a towel until it starts to breathe.

If you cannot dislodge the puppy or if it appears to be painful to the mother, seek veterinary help immediately.

Is it true that the puppy will die if it is not stimulated immediately after birth?

If the puppy is born within the foetal sac, it will be unable to breathe. If the mother doesn't break the sac, you should remove it by following the above instructions.

Fortunately, most puppies break the sac as they are passing through the birth canal.

Can puppies drown in their own foetal fluids?

Newborn puppies may try to breathe while still within the fluid-filled sac. The fluid then enters the lungs. This is an emergency. If a puppy has breathed in foetal sac fluid, their breathing will sound raspy and gurgly. This fluid should be removed as soon as possible. Hold the puppy in the palm of your hand, cradling the head between your first and second fingers. The head should be held while your other hand supports and steadies the body. Swing the puppy firmly downwards, headfirst. The centrifugal force generated should make the puppy gasp. Gravity will help the fluid and mucus flow out of the lungs and mouth. Repeat this several times being sure to check the color of the tongue and listening to the breathing. The tongue should change from a greyish blue color to pink if you are successful. If it remains bluish, continue the swinging process. Do not give up for at least ten to fifteen minutes. Once the puppy is breathing, place it in the warm box.

Is it possible to keep the puppies too warm?

The puppies have been living in a temperature of 101.5°F (38.5°C) which is pretty warm by human standards. However, immediately after birth puppies are unable to control their own body temperature and are dependent upon external warmth. Many puppies lack the strength to move away from a heat source. Be sure to use a thermometer, especially if you are using heat lamps. Keep the area the puppies are kept in at around 100ºF (30ºC).

(Video) Working Cocker Spaniel Giving Birth / Whelping

Should you continue the heat source if the mother is nursing her puppies?

It is usually not necessary to provide external heat if the mother is properly caring for her puppies and the whelping room is warm. . If a heat lamp is used, extreme care must be exercised otherwise the mother and puppies can easily become overheated.


What does whelped mean in breeding? ›

Beginner's Guide to Whelping Puppies

Whelping, or to whelp, means to give birth and is the term used for dogs. Bitch is the term for a female dog and dam means female parent but, in this article, I'll be less formal and say 'mom'.

What does whelping a litter mean? ›

Whelping is the name that's given to the process of a dog giving birth. Most dogs can whelp on their own, but sometimes, like humans, some dogs may have complications that can be dangerous to the mother or her puppies.

Why is it called whelping? ›

According to a fairly recent hypothesis, a word like Wölbung “curvature; arch” might refer to “womb,” with whelp being its fruit. Gothic hwilf-tr-jos “coffin,” Sanskrit garbhah “womb,” and Greek kٖólpos “breast” have been cited in this connection.

What to do when a dog is whelping? ›

Your dog won't normally need help during her labour, and although it's important to monitor her, it's best not to examine her or attempt to help her give birth – interfering too much can cause problems after birth. If you're worried your dog is having problems while whelping, it's best to contact your vet.

What is considered over breeding a dog? ›

However, an overbred dog occurs when a bloodline is continuously mated with disregard for the quality of the breeding stock. It is a practice of negligence and exploitation. Overbreeding endangers and harms the mother and her puppies, and can lead to the development of health issues.

What does breeding mean in bed? ›

A breeding kink refers to being aroused by “the idea of getting — or getting someone else — pregnant,” shared WebMD. The allure here is that you don't necessarily want to get pregnant or impregnate someone, but you enjoy the risk. This may sound preposterous to those who actively avoid pregnancy.

Is whelped the same as born? ›

To someone who studies animals, whelp is just the word for a newborn dog or for birthing. Besides applying to canines such as wolves and coyotes, whelp is sometimes used to describe a young person. This usually isn't a compliment.

What is the whelping process? ›

Whelping is the process of a dog giving birth to puppies. Most dogs are capable of whelping on their own without difficulties. But you should keep a close eye on your dog throughout her late pregnancy and labour. Having a good idea of what's normal for a dog in labour will allow you to spot signs of trouble early.

What is a puppy born dead at whelping time called? ›

Sometimes a stillborn puppy will disrupt the birthing process resulting in dystocia or birthing complication. At other times the dead puppy may be born normally.

How long should you wait between litters? ›

Canine gestation is only 63 days, but nine months for humans. A dog having a litter every six months is akin to a woman having a baby every two years, which is fairly common in the human world, and most active, healthy women handle that timing fairly easily.

What is the age limit for breeding dogs? ›

It is recommended to be finished breeding when your dog reaches the ages of five to seven. After this age, dog pregnancies are rather difficult on animal's bodies. Dogs are at a significantly greater risk of having miscarriages, being injured, or even dying during pregnancy after a certain age.

What is the synonym for whelp? ›

2 brat, urchin, whippersnapper.

Should I remove dead puppy from mother? ›

If the mother is still trying to care for any dead pups after a few days, be sure to remove them even if it causes the mother distress. Parasites from the decaying carcasses can be passed on to the mother and the remaining pups. If the mother or surviving pups seem ill in any way, remove the dead puppies immediately.

Do dogs sleep during whelping? ›

The whelping mother will then go through occasional minor contractions for several hours before active labor with intense contractions. You will notice your dog panting rapidly, moving restlessly, whining and sleeping deeply during the first stage of labor.

Should you touch puppies after they are born? ›

Start handling the puppies.

By about three weeks of age, you can—and should! —begin gently handling the puppies1 for short periods for reasons other than basic health care. Once the puppies have their eyes open, you can try carefully picking them up, holding them for a bit, and placing them back in the box.

What is the rule of 7 breeding dogs? ›

Eaten from at least 7 different containers • Been held and petted by at least 7 different people • Taken at least 7 one-mile car rides • Been in a crate at least 7 times • Played with at least 7 different kinds of toys • Walked on at least 7 different substrates (grass, gravel, concrete, etc.)

How many times can a breeder breed a dog? ›

Responsible breeders will ensure that female dogs are bred no more than once per year, and typically will breed no more than two, maybe three litters per year so they can ensure they have enough time to dedicate to raising them properly. Any more than that is indicative of a commercial operation or puppy farming.

How many times can you breed a mom dog? ›

Most female dogs (called dams when they are mothers) can generally produce two litters yearly, although some can go into heat thrice, having three litters. The number of litter a dam gets per year depends on the natural body cycle, body condition, and breeder.

What is the female called in breeding? ›

Basically, there are two methods of breeding which are as follows: Inbreeding : Breeding of the related animals as sire (male) and dam (female) are known as inbreeding.

What is the difference between mating and breeding? ›

Summary – Mating vs Breeding

Mating is the process of sexual union between a male and female. It is a random process. In contrast, breeding involves sexual reproduction to produce offspring.

What is the meaning of black breeding? ›

It included coerced sexual relations between male slaves and women or girls, forced pregnancies of female slaves, and favoring women or young girls who could produce a relatively large number of children.

What happens if a female dog gets pregnant by her son? ›

Offspring from a mother-son mating would, therefore, have a 25% chance of inheriting two bad copies of the mutations that have been passed down to the son. This is a greater than 100-fold risk compared to an outbred dog! Inbreeding in dogs has real consequences.

What is a new born dog called? ›

Puppy refers specifically to young dogs, while pup may be used for other animals such as wolves, seals, giraffes, guinea pigs, rats or sharks.

Why do dogs eat their pups? ›

It's an instinctive thing, an evolutionary trait that surfaces from time to time. They'll eat a puppy when they see it as waste material. A dead puppy, or a sick one, will – in their perception - make the rest of the litter sick and / or weaken the chances of the group's survival.

How long does whelping last? ›

The delivery of an entire litter of puppies can take between 1 and 24 hours. Increased puppy survival is associated with shorter total delivery time (less than 12 hours) and an interval of less than 2 hours between puppies. Discharge from the vulva during this time may be clear or bloody and this would be normal.

How do you prepare for whelping? ›

Whelping Supply Checklist:
  1. Lots of newspaper to line the whelping box during delivery for easy cleanup and garbage bags.
  2. Non-skid bath mats for bedding after whelping is done.
  3. Dry, clean towels to clean the puppies.
  4. Paper towels to help with clean up.
  5. Thermometer to check your dog's temperature before whelping.
Jan 27, 2021

What is whelping and queening? ›

The process of giving birth for canines (whelping) and felines (queening) is instinctual, but some pet owners prefer to have a veterinarian assist with the birthing process, especially for breeds that are known to have troubles.

Can you pull a stuck puppy out of the birth canal? ›

If the Puppy Is Stuck in the Birth Canal Half Exposed

Step 1: Grasp the puppy with a clean towel. Step 2: Applying steady traction, gently pull the puppy at a slight downward angle. Continue pulling gently and steadily until the pup is delivered.

Can you revive a stillborn puppy? ›

Can you resuscitate a stillborn puppy? Reviving a stillborn dog is very unlikely, but it's not impossible. The success of resuscitation depends on the situation.

What happens if a puppy comes out without a sac? ›

If a sac breaks before the puppy is born, the fluid will come out and that is the dam's water breaking. The dam may have a gush of lubricating fluid before the first puppy appears or the sac may break for the first puppy appears.

Is it OK to breed a dog back to back? ›

Most, if not all, reproductive veterinary specialists now recommend doing back to back breeding as long as the mama recovered quickly and easily from the previous litter. Then they recommend retiring a dog early. A dog goes through the exact same hormonal changes and their uterus wears out with every cycle.

Can you keep 2 puppies from the same litter? ›

Professional trainers like myself recommend against bringing home two puppies around the same age, let alone two from the same litter. While this sounds like a good plan in theory, in practice it often causes quite a bit of heartache and potentially some serious aggression trouble.

Can you breed within the same litter? ›

So, can puppies in the same litter have different fathers? Yes! Female dogs can be mated by more than one dog during their fertile period meaning a mixture of sperm is present and waiting to fertilise her eggs when she ovulates. The technical term for this is superfecundation.

When should you breed a dog for the first time? ›

The right time to breed your dog is when she is around two to three years old. Her body has then become fully matured to take on the full stress of pregnancy and the things that come after.

Do dogs have more puppies the more they mate? ›

Since each female dog may have six or more puppies with each mating and they may mate twice a year, the pet overpopulation problem can only be resolved through spaying and neutering programs.

How often should you breed a female dog? ›

For most females, the best time for breeding is between the tenth and fourteenth day of estrus. However, some females ovulate as early as the third or fourth day or as late as the eighteenth day. It is normal to arrange for two matings (also called stud services) for your dog, often 24 to 48 hours apart.

What does strippling mean? ›

stripling. noun. strip·​ling ˈstrip-liŋ : a youth just passing from boyhood to manhood.

What means pedantic? ›

Pedantic is an insulting word used to describe someone who annoys others by correcting small errors, caring too much about minor details, or emphasizing their own expertise especially in some narrow or boring subject matter.

What is a puppy whelping box? ›

A whelping box, also known as a nesting box, is where puppies will spend the first 20 days of their life. Designing to protect puppies during birth (whelping), it keeps them safely contained, protects them from the cold, and ensures they aren't crushed by their mother.

Why is my dog trying to bury her puppies? ›

Mother canines can reject their puppies for a variety of reasons and then try and bury them away from the other puppies in their litter. Even something as subtle as the puppy being too hot or cold can cause the mother to reject the pup. It could be an indication something is wrong with the puppy or the mother herself.

Why does my dog keep bringing me her puppies? ›

It is their way of showing how comfortable they feel around you and how much trust goes into your relationship. It could also be that the momma is extremely proud of her puppies and she simply wants to show them off.

How many puppies survive in a litter? ›

It is estimated that the mortality rate is around 20-30% of "live-born pedigree puppies" in the first three weeks of life. Signs of the syndrome can include weakness, low body temperature, and 'paddling'.

Do dogs sense labor coming? ›

Again, there's no definitive answer that your dog can sense signs of labor. But as you get closer and closer to delivery, your body will go through some 11th-hour changes that your dog might notice. And as a result, they may become extra protective and clingy, following you around the home to make sure you're OK.

Do dogs feel pain when giving birth? ›

Giving birth can be a frightening, confusing and painful experience for both the dog and the owner. Knowing and understanding normal labor and delivery, as well as proper pregnancy care, can help make the process go more smoothly and help you know what is normal and when it is time to get the veterinarian involved.

What should I put in my dogs whelping box? ›

A whelping box. An absorbent material for the whelping box, such as newspapers (but these may become sodden quickly and often stay wet and cold), puppy pads, incontinence pads or vetbeds. Clean towels or paper towels to help clean up during labour. Towels for drying and cleaning up the puppies.

What to do immediately after puppy is born? ›

The pups should be kept warm, free from drafts, away from other dogs, and the neighbors and their children. Healthy well-nourished pups should be quiet, eat and sleep (with some jerking during REM) 90% of the time, gain weight daily after the first 2 days, and show increasing strength and body tone.

Should you leave newborn puppies with mom? ›

The ideal minimum time that the puppy should be able to separate from its mother is 8 weeks. Still, many ethologists also claim that the puppy should be with its mother until 12 weeks of age. We must point out that the longer a puppy is with its mother, the better its development.

How do I stop my mother dog from crushing puppies? ›

Not all have the instinct to nose the puppies to the center of the whelping box for safety. Smothering, crushing, and laying down on the puppies can be prevented by installing railings that help prevent the dog from accidentally lying on a puppy that may have slipped behind her.

What does whelped mean for a dog? ›

Whelping is the process of a dog giving birth to puppies. Most dogs are capable of whelping on their own without difficulties. But you should keep a close eye on your dog throughout her late pregnancy and labour.

What is the simple definition of whelped? ›

: to give birth to. used of various carnivores and especially the dog.

When should a puppy be whelped? ›

Most dogs whelp about 63 days after breeding (normal range = 58 to 71 days).

What does whelp date for dogs mean? ›

Whelp. In whelp is when the dam is pregnant. The whelp date is the date on which the puppies are born. Also referred to as the litter date of birth. Whelping is the act of birthing puppies.

What is a whelping service? ›

Best Retrievers Whelping Service will provide the pregnant female with a safe and loving environment. We offer around clock care for the female while waiting for her due date, during labor and until she is safely home. We will also take the best care of the puppies until they have been placed in their new homes.

What is an example of a whelp? ›

It doesn't sound as cute as "puppy," but whelp means the same thing: a baby dog or wolf. This can also be a verb, as in "The mama poodle whelped six whelps." To someone who studies animals, whelp is just the word for a newborn dog or for birthing.

What does bred born mean? ›

used to refer to where one's birth and childhood took place. He's Mexican born and bred.

How long can whelping last? ›

Typically, there should not be more than 1-2 hours between puppies although great variation exists. The delivery of an entire litter of puppies can take between 1 and 24 hours.

How long do breeders keep puppies? ›

The exact time that is best for a puppy to go to its new home can vary by situation, but most breeders and veterinarians agree that 8 weeks of age is a good minimum. Some states have laws in place preventing puppies from being sold any earlier.

What are the stages of dog breeding? ›

The canine estrous (reproductive) cycle is made up of 4 different stages. These are proestrus, estrus, diestrus, and anestrus. Each stage has differing signs related to behavior, physical or clinical changes, hormonal changes, physiologic changes, and cytologic (vaginal smear) changes.

Can a dog whelp in a cage? ›

Many owners ask if they can use a dog crate as a whelping box - the answer is yes, if your dog is already crate trained. This way, they may find security in using this as their whelping box too. Make sure your box or crate is in a quiet space, that's warm and large enough for movement and lots of little puppies!

What is the temperature for whelping? ›

The rectal temperature will drop below 100oF (37.8oC), usually an hour or two before whelping. These signs may last for up to twenty-four hours and are part of first stage labor. Second stage labor is the stage of delivery.


1. NEWFOUNDLAND DOG GIVES BIRTH // DOG BREEDING// Newfie labour & whelping video part 2
(Living with BIG dogs)
2. WHELPING Preparations: What ITEMS to have before LABOUR?
3. How To Assist Your Dog during Whelping - The Delivery Process
(QBN Kennel)
4. 3 tips to whelping in the first 72Hrs!
6. Miniature Dachshund Whelping // Birth of Four Healthy Puppies
(Jazzy Wigglez)


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